Introductory Kit includes: Professional Manual, 25 Record Forms, and 25 Administrations of the Form A, Parts 1 and 2
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Color Trails Test

1. Auflage

von Louis D´Elia, Paul Satz, Craig Lyons Uchiyama, Travis White


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Introductory Kit includes: Professional Manual, 25 Record Forms, and 25 Administrations of the Form A, Parts 1 and 2


Developed to be free from the influence of language and cultural bias, the CTT assesses sustained attention in adults (18 to 89 years). Therefore, it is more applicable to cross-cultural research as well as to the clinical assessment of adults with limited education, English as a second language, and reading and language disorders.


The CTT was designed with psychometric properties similar to those found in the standard Trail Making Test, but eliminating the use of alphabet letters and, instead, relying on the universal concepts of color and numbers. Numbered circles are printed with vivid pink or yellow backgrounds that are perceptible to color-blind individuals. For Part 1, the respondent uses a pencil to rapidly connect circles numbered 1-25 in sequence. For Part 2, the respondent rapidly connects numbered circles in sequence, but alternates between pink and yellow. The length of time to complete each trial is recorded, along with qualitative features of performance indicative of brain dysfunction, such as near-misses, prompts, number sequence errors, and color sequence errors. This instrument provides alternate forms (A, B, C, and D) for retest applications and corrects for potential flaws that have plagued past research due to the effects of photocopied reproduction.


The CTT demonstrates good temporal stability (rtt = .64 – .79) over a relatively brief period of time (M = 14 days).


The validity of the CTT has been documented in a variety of clinical and neuropsychological populations. Convergent validity (correlation with Trail Making Test) is r = .41 – .50. Factor analyses showed structural validity. Substantial differences between healthy and cognitive impaired patients (brain injury patients; HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment patients) showed criterion-related validity.


Normative data were derived from a total group of 1528 healthy participants (Caucasian n = 1054, African American n = 182, and Hispanic n = 292). The normative data were collected for Form A only.Until research is completed, Forms B, C, and D are considered experimental.


Approximately 3–8 minutes


In Anwendung seit 1996.



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