- SPANS and SPANS-X
- SPANS-X and other neuropsychological tests
- Qualification requirements
- Administration and applications
- Psychometric properties
- Use in research
- Further information
- Contact us
Please see below FAQs relating to the Short Parallel Assessments of Neuropsychological Status - Extended (SPANS-X). If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us.
How is the SPANS-X different from the SPANS?
The SPANS-X has several new features, including:
The 'X' in 'SPANS-X' stands for extended, extra, and exceptional utility: it is a bigger, bolder, and more precise assessment of acquired brain injury, dementia, and other neurological and neuropsychological disorders. This article from the author provides further information on the updates in the SPANS-X.
I am an existing SPANS user. Do I need to purchase the SPANS-X kit or is there an upgrade kit?
There are considerable updates in SPANS-X and there is no upgrade kit for existing SPANS users. If you are interested in moving from SPANS to SPANS-X, we advise purchasing the SPANS-X kit and we will be happy to assist any SPANS users looking to make the switch.
We recommend all SPANS users thoroughly familiarise themselves with SPANS-X and read the SPANS-X manual, because many elements have been revised and new ones introduced in SPANS-X.
How is SPANS-X different to other tests of neuropsychological status?
The updated and extended SPANS-X offers various features differentiating it from other tests of brain injury, dementia and general neuropsychological status. These include:
What are the qualification requirements?
The SPANS-X can be used by Neuropsychologists, Clinical, Health, Forensic, and Counselling Psychologists, Occupational Therapists, Speech and Language Therapists, and other medical professionals who meet our Level 2 requirements (please see our qualifications page for guidance).
We recommend all users thoroughly familiarise themselves with SPANS-X and read the SPANS-X manual, even if they have previous experience in using SPANS, because many elements have been revised and new ones introduced in SPANS-X. In addition to providing clinical case studies and the evidence base for SPANS-X, Hogrefe can help test users should they have any queries regarding the administration, scoring and interpretation of results.
How long does the SPANS-X take to administer?
The SPANS-X takes approximately 30 minutes to administer.
What does the kit contain?
The complete kit includes: the Test Manual, Stimulus Books A and B, Scoring Booklets A and B (25 of each), Recognition Memory Cards, LNC Scoring Card, Digital Materials USB, Ruler, and Backpack Kit Case.
Can the SPANS-X be administered remotely?
Yes, SPANS-X can now be administered remotely, e.g. by videoconference. The SPANS-X kit comes with ‘extra’ remote e-administration materials, e-stimulus books, and instructions on how to carry out remote SPANS-X assessment. An initial validation study conducted during the development of the revised tests has established equivalency between face-to-face and remote administrations across all indexes.
Are reports generated?
The SPANS-X is a hand-scored test so there are no reports. There are extensive notes on how to interpretate scores in the test manual, with text that can be used in reports, and case studies and examples which can aid interpretation and help test users.
Can the SPANS-X be used to assess for dementia?
Yes, the SPANS-X can be used to assess for dementia. SPANS-X had its norms extended to include older adults up to the age of 90, and an additional interpretive metric to account for natural and expected decline in cognitive performance with age. This is a useful development for older adult services and memory clinics because SPANS-X would appear to provide advantages over current options for the assessment of older adults and dementia. In comparison to existing measures used with older adults, SPANS-X contains 30 subtests and seven index scores, thus providing a greater number of observations of cognitive skills and behaviours in a wider variety of domains/neurological conditions which are relevant to dementia assessment. Furthermore, the administration and scoring time is brief, taking a total of between 30–45 minutes.
Guidance for using the SPANS-X to assess for dementia is provided in the SPANS-X manual and this case study provides a real-life case example.
How was SPANS-X normed?
The SPANS-X has with a norm for every age from 18 to 90 years, calculated using an innovative nonlinear regression, for precise and accurate interpretation. Percentiles, confidence intervals, critical values or ‘cut-off scores’, and base rates are provided for greater precision.
What was the size of the norm group? And was there a clinical group?
The standardisation norming sample was 258 and the mixed neurological clinical sample group was 148. Both groups were ages 16–64.
How was reliability and validity established?
There is extensive evidence provided in the SPANS-X test manual which represents many years of work both on SPANS and on the revised version of the test.
I would like to use the SPANS-X in a research study. How might Hogrefe support me?
Hogrefe actively encourages the use of Hogrefe products for research purposes and are keen to hear from any interested academic or professional user undertaking such studies. Please see guidance on this page and feel free to contact us should you require any further assistance.
How can I find out more about the SPANS-X?
An ‘Introduction to the SPANS-X’ webinar was held on 10 February 2022 and a recording of this is available on request by emailing marketing(at)hogrefe.co.uk. You can also visit this page for further information and resources. This article from the author also gives an introduction to the measure. Alternatively, you are welcome to contact us with any questions you may have.
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