Technical Report
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d2 Test of Attention - Revised

1st edition 2015

by Rolf Brickenkamp, Lothar Schmidt-Atzert, Detlev Liepmann

Downloads (PDF)


* Online assessments are accessed through the Hogrefe Testsystem (HTS)


* Online assessments are accessed through the Hogrefe Testsystem (HTS)

Technical Report
product number: HUS62750
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Technical Report

Area of use

The d2-R Test of Attention has become one of the most widely-used measures of attention – particularly visual attention – throughout Europe. Used not only within clinical and educational settings, it is also used within the pharmaceutical and transport sectors and finds further application in areas such as sports psychology.

Language Versions

English, German, Czech, Slovak, Danish, Finnish, Dutch, Russian, Swedish and Norwegian

Product Description

The d2-R online consists of 14 screens of 60 symbols (in 6 rows of 10). Each symbol consists of a ‘d’ or ‘p’ marked with one, two, three or four small dashes. The test taker must scan the lines and cross out all occurrences of the letter ‘d’ with two dashes while ignoring all other symbols.

The d2-R has been praised for its value in measuring focus of attention – and its contribution to extensive savings. The d2-R measures a variety of facets, including Concentration, Attention, Sustained attention, Mental speed, Processing speed, Working speed, Perceptual speed and General performance capacity.

Online testing

Our online testing is available through the Hogrefe Testsystem (HTS) – click here for an overview.

HTS access is via a subscription model, where users pay an annual fee for periodic maintenance and upgrades to new features. This fee is being waived through 2023, as we invite you to become familiar with HTS for your assessment needs.

To create an account on HTS contact us by email or phone (978-255-3700).


When ordering test materials for the first time, we request that you provide documentation indicating you have the requisite qualifications or experience to administer psychological tests. Please download and complete the Qualification for Test Purchase.

Note: the original d2 Test is also available via paper/pencil and can be administered within 8 minutes, either individually or in a group format. Extensive norms are available based on a German sampling of over 6,000 subjects and preliminary US norms for children, college students, and the elderly are also included.


There are three main variables with norm-reference scores, and reliability as measured by Cronbach`s alpha are .97 for Concentration Performance (processing speed adjusted for errors); .96 for Processed Targets (pure measure of speed) and .93 for Error Percentage (accuracy rate). Test-retest correlations described in the manual are high to very high.

Test Validity

Construct and content validity studies are outline in the manual for both the original d2 on paper and pencil, and the newer online version. Both versions of the test have adequately high, and similar, convergent and discriminant validity.


UK (N=606) and Europe (N=2100) incorporating data from 10 European Countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the UK)

Processing Time

d2-R is timed and takes 10 minutes to complete.

Copyright year


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